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Extinction as a driver of avian latitudinal diversity gradients

Request PDF on ResearchGate | On Mar 4,, Paola Pulido- Santacruz and others published Extinction as a driver of avian latitudinal diversity gradients. The tropics possess many more species than temperate regions, yet the underlying causes of this latitudinal gradient in species diversity are poorly understood ( 1– 3). Species richness by a region and b 5° latitudinal band. Removing tropical species on latitudinal patterns in avian species richness in the. The results showed that the latitudinal gradient occurs in marine, terrestrial, and freshwater ecosystems, in both hemispheres.

Elevational diversity gradient ( EDG) is an ecological pattern where biodiversity changes with elevation. Download file to see previous pages This study actively promotes hypotheses put forward in recent times in explanation of latitudinal gradients in species richness. Gradients to test the main drivers of diversity, including sampling, area, mid- domain effect, temperature, temperature and water availability, and hypotheses of evolutionary history. First it lightly touches upon biodiversity as a whole to set parameters within which the study topic can dealt with. Location Seventy- eight elevational gradients of bird diversity from mountains in both hemispheres spanning 24.
Multiple and confounding latitudinal gradients in area, evolutionary age, and climate that are correlated with species diversity gradients. TRAMER Department of Biology University of Toledo Toledo, Ohio 43606 Species diversity patterns exist on at least three geographical scales: ( 1) the diversity in a sample drawn from a single community, often called within- habitat diversity; ( 2) the. Extinction as a driver of avian latitudinal diversity gradients.

Comment on “ The Latitudinal Gradient in Recent Speciation and Extinction Rates of Birds and Mammals” Joseph A. Bates, 2 Shannon J. It cannot be causally linked to a single mechanism and. Boyero L Latitudinal gradients in biodiversity.

Pulido- Santacruz P, Weir JT. To have lower extinction rates. Extinction as a driver of avian latitudinal diversity gradients. Latitudinal gradients in species diversity. ON LATITUDINAL GRADIENTS IN AVIAN DIVERSITY ELLIOT J.
Lower extinction probability due to larger geographic range and greater total population size. For example, forest inventories sampled along latitudinal and elevational gradients show the well- documented pattern that b diversity is higher in the tropics and at low elevations. We examine mammal diversity gradients in Asia and ask if spatial variation in diversification rates play an important role in explaining gradients in species richness between tropical and non- tropical regions here. The role of historical factors in driving latitudinal diversity gradients is poorly understood. Avian Vocal Evolution Ecological Opportunity Molecular Clocks Phylogeography and Phylogenetics Trait Evolution Other Latitudinal Gradients and Evolution Pulido- Santacruz, P. AbstractAn impediment to understanding the origin and dynamics of the latitudinal diversity gradient ( LDG) — the most pervasive large- scale biotic pattern on Earth— has been the tendency to focus narrowly on a single causal factor when a more synthetic, integrative approach is needed.

If you are aware of any important scientific publications about latitudinal gradients in biodiversity that were omitted from this review, or have other suggestions for improving it, please contact the author at her e- mail address:. As with most other biota, avian species diversity is generally greatest in tropical regions near the equator and decreases toward the poles. Latitudinal gradients in species diversity From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The pattern The increase in species richness or biodiversity that occurs from the poles to the tropics, often referred to as the latitudinal gradient in species diversity, is one of the most widely recognized patterns in ecology. It has been shown that globally, higher speciation and lower extinction rates play important roles in determining the latitudinal mammal diversity gradients. Stebbins evidence points to a substantial increase in the magnitude of ( 1974), in a discussion of the origin and diversification of latitudinal diversity gradients throughout the Cenozoic flowering plants, asked whether tropical rain forests are a ( 65 Myr– present), when most of the modern components ÔcradleÕ for the generation of new taxa. A number of authors have estimated net diversification rates ( speciation minus extinction) across a latitudinal gradient and concluded that more species accumulate per unit time at tropical latitudes [ including birds ( 4– 7.

Ancient latitudinal diversity gradients, however, were prob- ably less pronounced than seen today ( Crame ) ; all evidence points to a substantial increase in the magnitude of latitudinal diversity gradients throughout the Cenozoic ( 65 Myr– present), when most of the modern components of the Earth’ s flora and fauna diversified. Consequently, support for the cradle and museum hypotheses, or some combination of them, is controversial. ; 33: 770– 780. An extensive meta- analysis of nearly 600 latitudinal gradients from published literature tested the generality of the latitudinal diversity gradient across different organismal, habitat and regional characteristics. Hackett, 2 Nathalie Seddon1 Weir and Schluter ( Reports, 16 March, p. It is possible that the timing of origination and extinction might have some role, including whether such events occurred during icehouse or greenhouse worlds, or at times of steep or shallow climatic gradients.

- speciation and extinction occur at a global spatial scale and over evolutionary time scales, it is impossible to conduct manipulative experiments to isolate various factors and separate correlation from. Here we review two major hypotheses for the origin of the latitudinal diversity gradient. 36, 132– 147 U. Pulido- Santacruz, P. Evolution and the latitudinal diversity gradient: speciation, extinction and biogeography Abstract A latitudinal gradient in biodiversity has existed since before the time of the dinosaurs, yet how and why this gradient arose remains unresolved. 1574) used variation in the age distribution of. Here, we used an updated global phylogeny of terrestrial birds to test the role of three key historical factors— speciation, extinction, and dispersal rates— in generating latitudinal diversity gradients for eight major clades.
Latitudinal gradients in species diversity The increase in species richness or biodiversity that occurs from the poles to the tropics, often referred to as the latitudinal diversity gradient ( LDG), is one of the most widely recognized patterns in ecology. Online Article Proofs Reprint. Latitudinal gradients in other aspects of taxonomic biodiversity ( eg, species or generic evenness, diversity, dominance, and rarity) as well as in other dimensions of biodiversity ( eg, functional, phenetic, and phylogenetic) have received increasing attention.

Speciation gradients and the distribution of biodiversity. Global patterns of ant diversity and evolution. 2 ° N, including gradients from various. ( ) Latitudinal species diversity gradient of spatial origination patterns in the production of latitudinal diversity marine zooplankton for the last three million years. We analyse over 2500 songs from 116 pairs of closely.

These results indicate that diversification time— and not rate— is the main driver of the diversity gradient in ants. Here we used an updated global phylogeny of terrestrial birds to test the role of three key historical factors – speciation, extinction and dispersal rates – in generating latitudinal diversity gradients for eight major clades. Post- Eocene climate change, niche conservatism, and the latitudinal diversity gradient of New World birds. Here, we used an updated global phylogeny of terrestrial birds to test the role of three key historical factors- speciation, extinction, and dispersal rates- in generating latitudinal diversity gradients for eight major clades. Signed to test for latitudinal gradients but that reported diversity measures across different latitudes. Latitudinal gradients in species diversity: the search for the primary.

106, 21717– Krug, A. Barrera- Guzman & A. Tobias, 1* John M.

, origination rates are higher in tropical areas and extinction rates do not vary latitudinally), or a ‘ museum. ( ) Contrarian clade confirms the ubiquity of 34 Yasuhara, M. The EDG states that species richness tends to increase as elevation increases, up to a certain point, creating a " diversity bulge" at middle elevations. Diversity gradients. The role of historical factors in driving latitudinal diversity gradients is poorly understood. Lower extinction rates play important roles in determining the latitudinal mammal diversity gradients [ 17]. Online Article Weir, J. View Article PubMed/ NCBI Google Scholar 31.

Online Article Lawson, A. We examine mammal diversity gradients in Asia and ask if spatial variation in diversification rates play an important role in explaining gradients in species richness between tropical and. This so- called latitudinal diversity gradient is considered to be one of the most pervasive large- scale patterns in biology ( Jablonski et al. Avian latitudinal diversity. Latitudinal Species Diversity Gradient and Species Richness Patterns.
Attempts to explain the ‘ modern- type’ LBG as a product of latitudinal variation in evolutionary dynamics have focussed on differences in net diversification rates, with the species- rich tropics often regarded as either a ‘ cradle’ ( Figure I A) that generates new species ( i. Gradients in speciation rate, extinction. Hybridization in headwater regions, and the role of rivers as drivers of speciation in Amazonian birds. However, after correcting for variation in pooled species richness ( g diversity), these differences in b diversity disappear. Pulido- Santacruz, A. Phylogenetic diversity by c region and d latitudinal band, where the gray area reflects the distribution of 95% null values while the blue area reflects 95% of observed values across 100 trees in the posterior distribution.
We ask whether rates of evolution in traits important for reproductive isolation vary across a latitudinal gradient, by quantifying evolutionary rates of two traits important for pre- mating isolation— avian syllable diversity and song length. The search revealed more than 1, 000 studies, which were checked for the following criteria: measurement of diversity of a de- fined target organism group at a minimum of three lo- cations spanning a minimum latitude range of 10. Extinction as a driver of avian latitudinal.

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